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Research References

This section of the site will always be under development, with relevant research material being added as it becomes available.
The information is drawn from a variety of sources, and represents but a very small amount of the more than 6000 research papers available.

The sources include:
(a) The Institute of Colostrum Research in NZ
(b) A medical text book - Peptide Immunotherapy: Colostrum, A Physican's reference Guide, by Dr Andrew Keech PhD.
The focus is on providing material relevant to this site and to the enquiries that we receive.

There is a key word/s at the start of each reference.
As always.....the reader should seek medical advice from their health professional.
This information is here to educate and inform, not to advise or diagnose.

Opening Research quote:

1. Colon Cancer: Orally administered lactoferrin exerts an antimetastatic effect and enhances production of IL-18 in the intestinal epithelium.
A study on the protective effects of lactoferrin supplementation against lung metastasis in experimentally colon cancer. In addition to the increase in cytotoxic cells seen in other studies, there was also an increase in IL-18 production in the intestinal epithelium, suggesting it plays a role in mediating the inhibition of the cancers.
Kuhara T, Ligo M, Ushida Y, Sekine K, Terada N, Okamura H, Tsuda H. Nutrition and Cancer 38(2)192-199 (2000). (Site reference # 022). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.
 
2. Diarrhea, child: Remission of diarrhea due to cryptosporidosis in an immunodeficient child treated with hyperimmune bovine colostrum.
British Medical Journal Clinical Research Division 293(6557): 1276-1277 (1986). Tzipori CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, Losonsky G, Roy MJ, Edelman R. Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

3. NSAIDS, damage: Bovine colostrum as a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage.
Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE et al.
(Note - Professor Playford is featured on the video). Gut 44:653-658 (1999). (Site reference #91). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

4.
Gastro, infants: Modulation of the immune system and the response against pathogens with bovine colostrum concentrates.
The ability of colostrum to protect infants against pathogens, specifically those which cause gastroenteritis and severe diarrhea, makes it an ideal, cheap, safe and effective means of protecting children in those parts of the world where medical assistance is lacking or substandard and could save thousands of lives each year.

Solomons NW.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56(Suppl.3): 524-528 (2002). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

5.
AIDS/digestion: Treatment of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum.
Immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum were very effective in treating chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients from a variety of causes. Colostral immunoglobulins are highly resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. 
Rump JA, Arndt R, Arnold A, Bendick C, Dichtelmuller H, Franke M, Helm EB, Jager H, Kampmann B, Kolb P. (Site reference #74). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

6.
Anti-bacterial/food poisoning:  Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme.
Lactoferrin and lysozyme act together to kill gram-negative bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae (cholera), Salmonella typhimuriom (food poisoning) and Eschericia coli. The lactoferrin attaches to and destroys the cell wall of the bacteria, allowing the lysozyme to enter and lyse (burst) the organisms.
Ellison RT III, Giehl TJ. Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

7. Infections/GI tract: Oligosacchrides and glycoconjugates in bovine milk and colostrum.
One way colostrum helps protect against infections is through the oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates it contains. These are complex sugars which compete for binding sites in the GI tract with pathogens.
Gopal PK, Gill HS. British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl.1): S69-S74 (2000). (Site reference #96). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

8. Anti-viral: Antiviral activities of lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is effective against both DNA and RNA visuses, including rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes virus and HIV, by blocking celluar receptors and by directly binding to the viruses.
van der Strate BW, Beljaars L, Molema G, Harmen MC, Meijer DK. (Site reference #16). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

9. Immune system: Proline-rich Polypeptide (PRP'S) - an immunomodultory peptide from bovine colostrum.
A unique, non-species specific peptide which plays an immunomodulatory role in the immune system. It can induce the differentiation of thymocytes into functional T cells as well as increase the permeability of skin blood vessels. What makes it unique is that a second exposure to the polypeptide reverses the changes induced by first exposure. 
Janusz M, Lisowski J. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 41: 275-279 (1993). (Site reference #67). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

10. MS slowed: Immunological treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.
Transfer factor (PRP) slowed the progression of the disease whereas interferon and levamisole did not.
Hughes R.A. Journal of Neurology 230(2): 73-80 (1983). (Site reference #09). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

11. Athletes/IGF-1: Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance.
Supplementation with colostrum did not increase serum IGF-1 levels of initial performance, but it did significantly improve performance in a second round of performance.
Buckley JD, Abbott MJ, Brinkworth GD, Whyte PB. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 5(2):65-79 (2002). (Site reference #241). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

12. Cancers/immune system/cell death: Anti-tumor and chemopreventative activity of lactoferrin.
Lactoferrin participates in iron homeostasis, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory,  anti-tumor, and analgesic activity, regulation of bone metabolism, embryonic development, reproductive functions, and others. It demonstrates direct anti-tumor activity, such as lytic,  pro-apoptotic (programmed cell death), anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and chelation of iron. It also has chemo-preventative properties, regulates the activity of phas 1 and 2 enymes participating in the activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and regulates the composition of the intestinal microflora. It stimulates the release of a number of cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, INF-y and TNF-a. It increases the number and activity of T and B lymphocytes and NK cells and increases the phagocytic activity of moncytes and macrophages.
Artym J. Post by Higieny i Medycyny Do wiadczalnej 60:352-369 (2006). (Site reference #712). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

13. Liver protection and damage: Use of bovine colostral milk as a preparation for the protection of the liver. 
Whole bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin preparation from colostrum are used to protect the liver from bacterial, viral or protozan diseases, such asE. coli, rotavirus or crytosporidia infection, as well as detoxify the liver by removing toxic protein metabolites such as ammonia. It can also be use to treat the effects of various liver diseases, such as inflammation, viral hepatitis, fibrosis of the liver, cirrhosis of the liver, fatty liver, and so forth. These effects include distrubances of the liver's detoxification, excretory, conjugational and synthesizing functions, portal hypertension, due to liver diseases, and even coma due to liver failure. Supplementation can also be used to relieve stress on the liver due to liver unsufficiency as a result of liver parenchyma damage or viral hepatitis, allowing the liver to heal and recover function.  

Moller W, Lissner R, Nitsche D. US Patent #5,710,132 (1998). (Site reference #561). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

14. Cancers/breast/colon/tumors: Effects of human lactoferrin on NK cell cytotoxicity against hematopoietic and epithelial tumor cells. Human lactoferrin applied at levels found in inflammation was found to boost the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against hematopoietic and breast epithelial tumor cell lines. It also significantly increases the susceptibility to lysis (bursting) of breast and colon epithelial tumor cell lines but not the hematopoietic tumor cells. Lactoferrin is shown to inhibit epithelial cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression.
Damiens E, Mazurier J, El Yazidi I, Masson M, Duthille I, Spik G, Boilly-Marer Y. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1402(3):277-287 (1998). (Site refernece 621). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

15. Cancers/chemo: Enhancement of drug sensitivity of human malignancies by epidermal growth factor.  Study shows that a number of human cancers become more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents in the prescence of epidermal growth factor. Cancers showing increased sensitivity include ovarian carcinoma, cancers of the head, neck, cervix, colon, prostate and pancreas, and non-small-cell lung cancer. Drugs to which the cancers became more sensitized include the most common chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, carboplatin, tetraplatin, taxol, melphalan and 5-fluorouracil.
Kroning R, Jones JA, Hom DK,Cjuang CC, Sanga R, Los G, Howell SB, Christen RD. British Journal of Cancer 72(3):615-619 (1995). (Site reference 921). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD. 

16. Antioxidant/inflammation: Antioxidant properties of human colostrum.
Colostrum reduces ferricytochrome C in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN's) and also disrupts other metabolic and enzymatic activities of PMN's which are crucial in PMN respiratory burst mediation of acute inflammation, showing that colostrum is a powerful antioxident.
Buescher ES, McIleran SM. Pediatric Research 24(1): 14-19 (1988). (Site reference # 251).
Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

17. Antioxidant/supplementation: Glutathione; a powerful anti-oxidant found in colostrum.
Both glutatione and its chemical predecessors are present in large quantities in colostrum. As glutathione is not absorbed directly, glutathione production in the body can only be accomplished by supplementation with its antecedents, cystine, glycine and glutamic acid, all of which are abundant in colostrum.
Borissenko M. NZMP August 2002. (Site reference #151).
Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

18. Ulcers and gastritis: Bactericidal effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobacter pylori.
Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastritis and ulcers in humans. Serum and colostrum from non-immunised Fresian cows were found to be highly bactericidal against H. pylori. Post-colostral milk did not show any bactericidal effect against H. pylori.
Korhonen H, Syvaoja EL, Ahola-Luttial H, Sivela S, Kopola S, Husu J, Kosunen TU. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 78(6): 655-662 (1995). (Site reference #851).
Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

19. Immunodefiency/PRP's: Transfer Factor 1: methods of therapy.
Approximately 50% of patients with a variety of immunodeficiency disorders are induced to a clinically acceptable level of cell-mediated immunity when given transfer factor (PRP's).
Levin AS, Spitler LE, Fudengerg HH. Birth Defects Original Articles Series 11 (1):445-448 (1975). (Site reference 994). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD. 

20. Epilepsy/PRP's: Immunomodulatory therapy of epilepsy with transfer factor.
Eight epileptic patients treated for 3 months with transfer factor(PRP's) had  significant reduction in epileptic episodes.
Simko M, Mokran V, Nyulassy S. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 98(4):224-237 (1997). (Site reference 894). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

21. Allergic Symptoms: Peptide Immunotherapy; The Use of Bovine Colostrum Proline-rich Polypeptides in Cytokine Modulation for the Alternative Relief of Allergic Symptoms.
Keech A. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunotherapy 119(1): S260-S260 (2008). (Site reference 774). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

22. Measles, severe/fatal: Successful treatment of severe complicated measles with non-specific transfer factor.
Severe complicated measles has a high mortality rate with no specific treatment. 10 patients, one with encephalitis, were treated with PRP's. 9 of 10 survived and were cured. The patient with encephalitis showed no neurologic effects two weeks after receiving the last dose.
Ferrer-Argote VE, Romero-Cabello R, Hernandez-Mendosa L, Arista-Viveros A, Rojo-Medina J, Balseca-Olivera F, Fierro M, Gonzalez-Constandse R. In Vivo 8(4):555-557 (1994). (Site reference 554). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

23. Shingles; PRP's/ anti-viral drug: Comparative study of transfer factor and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster.
Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a skin disease caused by varicella herpes virus (VHV) and can lie latent for long periods of time. A comparison study was performed between transfer factor (PRP's) and acyclovir, an antiviral drug which has shown the most promise against VHV in 28 patients. Patients who received PRP's had a much more favorable clinical course. Those receiving PRP's showed an increase in interferon-gamma levels and CD4+ lymphocytes. This was not seen  in patients receiving acyclovir. This result is very significant and confirms the immunomodulatory properties of PRP's.

Estrada-Parra S, Nagaya A, Serrano E, Rodriguz O, Santamaria V, Ondaza R, Chavez R, Correa B, Monges A, Cabezas R, Calva C, Estrada-Garcia I. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 20(10):521-535 (1998). (Site reference 354). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

24. Damage to DNA, etc: Oxidents, antioxidents, and the degernerative diseases of aging.

Oxident by-products of metabolism cause significant damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. This damage resutls in aging and the degernative diseases associated with aging, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system decline, brain dysfunction and cataracts. Antiorxident diseases against these diseases decline with age, necessitation the supplementation of antioxidetns in the diet. 
Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90(17):7915-7922 (1993). (Site reference 941). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD. 

25. Early cell death: Chronic oxidative stress compromises telomere integrity and accelerates the onset of senescence in human endothelial cells.
 Oxidative stress due to the build-up of oxidization by-products has been linked to the onset of cell senescence in blood vessel lining cells by disrupting telomere integrity. Telomeres are the"tails" of the chromosomes, the length of which determine the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo before reaching its limit. Glutathione, a powerful anti-oxident, is crucial in maintaining telomere integrity.
Kurz DJ, Decary S, Hong Y, Trivier E, Akhmedov A,
Erusalimsky JD. Journal of Cell Scince 117:2417-2426 (2004). (Site reference 051). Peptide Immunotherapy Dr Andrew Keech PhD. 

26. Breast Cancer: Lactoferrin inhibits GI cyclin-dependent kinases during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells.
It is known that lactoferrin inhibits cell proliferation and suppresses tumor growth. The mechanism of how it does this is unknown, however.
In this study, lactoferrin applied to a breast carcinoma cell line arrests the growth of these cells at the GI (growth and preparation of the chromosomes for replication) to S (DNA synthesis) transition of the cell cycle. The arrest is associated in the dramatic increases in the levels of Cdk2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2) and cyclin E and an inhibition of Cdk2 Kinase activity. Cdk4 activity is also decreased and Cdk inhibitor p21(CIPI) expression is increased. Lactoferrin also maintains the cell cycle regulator retinoblastoma protein pRb in a hypophosphorylated form.
Therefore lactoferrin induces growth arrest by modulating the expression and activity of key GI regulatory proteins.
Damiens E, El Yazidi I, Mazurier J, Duthille I, Spik G, Boilly-Marer Y. Journal of Cell Biochemistry 74(3):486-498 (1999). (Site reference 821). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

27. Healing skin wounds: Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. 
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), IGF-1 and epethelial growth factor (EGF) are important growth factors in healing skin wounds. EGF in particular is capable of initiating epithelial growth.
Bhora T, et al. Journal of Surgical Research 59(2):236-244 (1995). (Site reference 861). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

28. Stomach ulcers: Glycoproteins in bovine colostrum inhibit the attachment of the Helicobactor Pylori bacteria that cause stomach ulcers. Colostrum contains significant amount of Interlukin 10 (a strong inflammation inhibitory agent) which was significant in reducing inflammation in arthritic joints and injury areas.
Dr Olie Hernell, at the University of Ulmea, Sweden; Science. Notes from the Institute of Colostrum Research.

29. Cancer/heart muscle/blood vessels: Colostrum contains TgF-B which has an important suppressive effect on cytoxic substances (anti-inflammatory). Inhibits cell growth of human Osteocarcoma (cancer) cells (75% inhibition). Mediator of fibrosis and angiogenesis (healing of heart muscle and blood vessels, accelerates wound healing and bone formation.
Roberts et al, 1986; Sporn et al, 1983; Centrella et al, 1987. Drs. Tokuyama and Tokuyama: Cancer Research Institute Kanaawa University, Japan. Notes from the Institue of Colostrum Research.

30. Colostrum Immunoglobulins successfully treat - Crohn's disease, Kawasaki's Syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis, Thrombocytopenia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Anemia, Bulluos Pamphigoid, Neutropenia, Guillain Barre Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Lupus, among others.
Dr Dwyer; New England Journal of Medicine. Notes from the Institute of Colostrum Research.

31. Healing skin wounds: Fibroblasts facilitate re-epithelialization in wounded human skin equivalents. Re-epithelialization of wounds begins with the migration of keratinocytes (skin cells) from the edges of the wound. This migration is dependent on the interaction of the keratinocytes with dermal fibroblasts and extracellur matrix. This migration is accelerated by EGF and keratinocyte growth factor.
El Ghalbzouri A, Hensbergen P,Gibbs S, Kempenaar J, van der Schors R, Ponec M. Laboratory Investigation 84(1):102-112 (2004). (Site reference 961). Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

32. Muscle Healing: Improvement of muscle healing through enhancement of muscle regeneration and prevention of fibrosis. IGF-1 can improve muscle regeneration in injured muscle.
Sato K, Li Y, Foster W, Fukushima K, Badlani N, Adachi N, Usas A, Fu FH, Huard J. Muscle and Nerve 28(3):355-372 (2003). (Site reference 271. Peptide Immunotherapy, Dr Andrew Keech.

33. Infant Formula damaged by high temperatures. Factors affecting insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in bovine milk. IGF-1 levels are highest in colostrum and lower in mature milk. Concentation was not altered by pasteurization (79C for 45 seconds) but was undectable at higher temperature s (121C for 5 minutes) used for infant formula preparation and in commercial infant formula.
Collier RJ, Miller MA, Hildebrand JR, Torkelson AR, White TC, Madsen KS, Vicini JL, Eppard PJ, Lanza GM. Journal of Dairy Science 74(9):2905-2911 (1991). (Site reference 481). Peptide Immunotherapy Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

34. Ulta High Temperature (UHT) destroys effectivness: Thermal behaviour of bovine lactoferrin in water and its relation to bacterial and antibacterial activity. Lactoferrin which was either unheated of pasteurised showed similar activity, while lactoferrin exposed to UHT treatment decreased its ability to bind to bacterial species and destroyed its ability to inhibit bacterial growth.
Paulsson MA, Svensson U, Kishore AR, Naidu AS. Journal of Diary Science 76(12):3711-3721 (1993). (Site reference 581). Peptide Immunotherapy Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

35. HIV and Colostrum Lactoferrin: Antiviral effects of plasma and milk proteins: lactoferrin shows potent activity against both human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomeglovirus replication in vitro. Native lactoferrin from colostrum and milk completely blocked CMV infection and inhibited the HIV- 1 cytopathic effect. Lactoferrin likely exerts its effect at the level of virus absorption and/or penetration as the effect is no longer seen once the virus is inside target cells.
Harmen MC, Swart PJ, de Bethune MP, Pauwels R, De Clercq E, The TH, Meijer DK. Journal of Infectious Diseases 172(2):380-388 (1995). (Site reference 802). Peptide Immunotherapy Dr Andrew Keech PhD.

36. DNA Synthesis: Bovine colostrum contains high levels of growth factors that promote normal cell growth and DNA synthesis. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, GH, Insulin and Glycogen concentration in Bovine Colostrum and in Plasma of dairy cows.Oda, Shinnichi, et al., 1989, Comparative Biochemical Physiology A: Comparative Physiology, Vol 94A No 4 pp. 805-808. Institute of Colostrum Research.

37. Repair of DNA: Japanese reseearchers discovered that Transforming Growth Factors A and B (TGF A & B) in bovine colostrum were involoved in normal cellular activities such as embryonic development, cell proliferation, and tissue repair. They also reported it promoted the synthesis and repair of DNA - the master code of the cell. Noda, et al., 1984, Gann Vol 75, 109-112. Institute of Colostrum Research.

38. Repair of Cell Function: Bovine Colostrum was found to contain 7 different nucleotides which are important for normal cell function and repair. Acid Soluble Nuceotides of Cow's etc. Gil, Angel, Sanchez-Medina, 1981, Journal of Dairy Research Vol 48 pp 35-44. Institute of Colostrum Research.

39. Insulin-like Ingredient: Insulin-like ingredient in bovine colostrum (IgF-1) slows protein breakdown. Protein breakdown was also slowed by addition of colostrum to a cell line known to be unresponsive to insulin, indicationg the prescence of non--insulin growth factors in bovine colostrum. Ballard, Neild, Francis et al., 1982, Journal of Cellular Physiology, 110 pp 249-254.

40. Growth Factors: Showed Bovine IgF-1 (Immune Growth Factors) to be identical to human IgF-1. Described purification process for extraction of IgF-1 from colostrum.Francis, 1986, Biochemical Journal, 233(1) pp. 207-213. Institute of Colostrum Research.

 

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